Two sequencing techniques were developed independently in the 1970s. The method developed by Fred Sanger used chemically altered "dideoxy" bases to terminate newly synthesized DNA fragments at specific bases (either A, C, T, or G). These fragments are then size-separated, and the DNA sequence can be read.
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The sequencing method developed by Fred Sanger forms the basis of automated "cycle" sequencing reactions today. Fluorescent dyes are added to the reactions, and a laser within an automated DNA sequencing machine is used to analyze the DNA fragments produc
Techniques to read the sequence of DNA, letter by letter, have been available since the 1970s. However, the massive task of sequencing the three billion basepairs of the human genome required machines that could read and interpret the data.